Thank you, Chuan Hiang Teng, for this thoughtful comment. I encourage you to publish it as an article, rather than only showing it to me.

I understand your point, that materialism is not the only way that fairness or justice may be measured. Many philosophies have been created by great teachers, from Lao Tsu to the Buddhas to the Stoics of ancient Greece and Rome, all encouraging us to look for happiness within ourselves rather than seeking pleasure in our surroundings. That is good advice.

We may find a kind of justice in our opportunity to rise above our circumstances. I have no doubt that I am far happier than Donald Trump, a man incapable of comprehending shame or honor or duty. He will never know the joy of real relationships, which require humility.

However, you offer no justification for your assertion that happiness is always attainable. Is happiness attainable to a child who starves to death? To a young girl who is sold into sexual slavery in a foreign country, where she is given heroin to keep her docile and killed when she is worn out and no longer useful? To a person who lives with the memory of seeing their family killed by criminals or soldiers?

Philosophy, like wealth, is also a privilege available only to those fortunate enough to be given meaningful choices in life.

Retired psychologist, wordsmith, teacher, learner. Buy me coffee: ko-fi.com/edrobson. ecrobson@gmail.com

Retired psychologist, wordsmith, teacher, learner. Buy me coffee: ko-fi.com/edrobson. ecrobson@gmail.com