Jill Bolte Taylor, a neuroscientist who survived and recovered from a massive left temporal hemorrhagic stroke in her 30s, wrote a book, "My Stroke of Insight." Having lost all language functions for months, and with them her internal monologue, she was able to observe what she called "the storyteller" as it returned. I believe her book is essential reading for everyone who wonders where their thoughts are coming from.
Of course Darwin does not explain everything--or explain anything about individuals of any species. Why should it? But without his paradigm biology would be as lost as chemistry without Mendeleev's table.